Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)


Business Administration


Mohamad S. Hammoud


Toxic leaders micromanage, threaten, and discourage employees from sharing their ideas,causing a decline in innovation. Export-based company executives need to understand how to resolve toxic leadership to enhance their companies’ performance. Grounded in the transformational leadership theory, the purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies export-based company leaders use to resolve toxic leadership styles. The participants were four senior and frontline leaders from export-based companies in Ethiopia. Data were collected from semistructured interviews and document reviews and were analyzed with thematic data analysis. Four themes emerged: open and transparent communication, sustained counseling and training, teamwork and joint decision-making, and incentive and review frameworks. One key recommendation was to use sustained counseling and training to resolve toxic leadership styles. The implications for positive social change include the potential to improving the well-being and creativity of employees and favoring the creation of innovative products and services.