Date of Conferral





Public Policy and Administration


Amanda Deerfield


Numerous laws and policies have been enacted to aid economic recovery and housing growth after the 2008 housing

crisis in the United States; however, concern remains that low-income families interested in homeownership are in poor

housing situations due to inadequate access to federal homeownership policies and program information. The purpose of

this quantitative study was to analyze the relationship between the variables of income, race, and access to federal

mortgage program policy information and dependent variable HEC on homeownership outcomes for aggregate years

2007 to 2018. Using a quasi-experimental design, the chi-square test of independence was used to test N = 14,489

households for statistical significance (p < .001) between the variables of income, race, access to federal mortgage

purchase programs, and HEC and homeownership outcomes for aggregate survey years of 2007 to 2018. The

theoretical framework for this study was the punctuated-equilibrium theory (PET). Data were accumulated from the

National Survey of Mortgage Originations found in the National Mortgage Database on the Federal Housing Finance

Agency website. Study results indicated a statistically significant association between income (2(5, N = 14,489) =

580.16, p < .001; race 2(3, N = 14,489) = 339.85, p < .001; access 2(3,N = 14,489) = 389.87, p < .001) and HEC in

homeownership outcomes. The implications for positive social change include study results that aid policy makers in

developing accessible homeownership policies, increase homebuyer HEC awareness and participation, while improving

low-income homeownership outcomes.