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The primary goal of this two-phased, sequential mixed-methods study was to discover whether union affiliation is associated with a lower occurrence of burnout in factory workers by comparing union and nonunion workers. The objective was to determine levels of burnout in union and nonunion employees as well their perception of social support in the workplace. The theoretical synthesis consisted of conservation of resources theory and the theory of reasoned action. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and the Quality of Worklife Questionnaire were used to identify the characteristics of the workplace (job demands and job resources) and the level of burnout. Quantitative results confirmed the presence of burnout in both sample populations. Regression results for union participants identified both poor management and increased in job demands as significant predictors of burnout. Conversely, regression results for nonunion participants pointed to poor management only as a significant predictor of burnout. Qualitative descriptive and explanatory thematic results provided additional contextual support for the quantitative findings - specifically, that both union and nonunion participants identified management as a primary concern. In addition, union participants also identified manpower and support as primary concerns in the work environment. The findings point to the negative consequences of burnout for the employer and employee and to areas of concern that need to be addressed in the employment setting. Implications for positive social change include the development of programs to minimize the development of burnout and increase an employee's organizational commitment.