Date of Conferral
A dramatic and historic evolution has occurred as mental health care has shifted from institutional-based care to community-based care. Framed by the social exchange theory, the purpose of this study was to identify the correlation of the leadership style of supervisors in residential care facilities with the organizational citizenship behavior of the residential care workers. The research questions focused on the correlation between the leadership styles and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) with a secondary focus specifically on transformational leadership. Residential care workers in 3 states working in 65 facilities within a single organization completed 2 surveys: the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Checklist. Forty-nine completed surveys were returned. The transactional leadership style was correlated to OCB in 2 defining subfactors: contingency reward r(42)=.424, p < .001 and management by exception/active r(42)=.417, p <.001. The transformational leadership style was correlated to OCB in 4 defining subfactors: idealized behaviors r(42)=.388, p <.001, instrumental motivation r(42)=.417, p <.001, idealized influence r(42)=.395, p <.001, and individual consideration r(42)=.371, p <.005. These findings have not been previously reported in mental health residential care settings. The generalizability of this study is limited by sample size and scope, because the employees come from facilities within a single corporate organization. Residential care is part of the overall positive social change in care of the mentally ill, by offering the mentally ill the opportunity of an enhanced, community-based life. This study begins the process of ensuring that sufficient evidence-based knowledge and scholarly practitioners are available to lead work that benefits this vulnerable population; additional study is recommended.