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Nonlinear and chaotic environmental changes characterize health services organizations as complex adaptive systems in which leaders must exercise non-traditional leadership practices to succeed. Health services leaders who have learned and implemented traditional linear management approaches are ill prepared to lead in complex environments. This study tested complexity and adaptive leadership theories of agility and resilience in complex health systems. The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional internet-based survey study was to quantify relationships between independent variables of agility and resilience and secondary dependent variables of financial, patient satisfaction, quality and human capital outcomes. The impact of turbulence was also examined. Included sample data were collected from 533 employed healthcare leaders using probability-based systematic proportional random sampling methods and were analyzed through correlation, regression, one-way analysis of variance, t tests, and Hayes PROCESS statistical analytics. Agility correlated with and predicted patient satisfaction outcomes. Resilience independently correlated with and predicted financial performance and patient satisfaction outcomes and augmented the correlation and predictability of agility. Agility and resilience cumulatively predicted financial performance outcomes. Turbulence was related to agility, resilience, financial performance, and patient care quality outcomes and mediated relationships with financial and patient care quality outcomes. Health services leaders may apply these findings to promote social change through the implementation of the agile and resilient leadership approaches necessary to achieve organizational performance outcomes that benefit vulnerable populations.