Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)




Wen-Wen Chien


Risks associated with fluctuating exchange rates affect investment cost and investor profitability. Approximately 50% of firms in emerging markets have significant exposure to fluctuating exchange rates. Grounded in principal-agent theory (PAT), the purpose of this case study was to explore hedging strategies to mitigate risks of fluctuating exchange rates. The population comprised a census sampling of 12 bank hedgers (risk managers and controllers) in Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, East Africa. Data collection involved semistructured interviews, casual observations of the work environment, and analysis of reports including risk management, internal control, and compliance policies. Data were analyzed by coding and grouping narrative segments and significant statements into themes of participants' experience in hedging exchange rate risks. Method triangulation and member checking were used to increase the trustworthiness of interpretations. Four themes emerged directly related to the PAT conceptual framework: training and skills development, management of hedging strategies and contracts, corporate governance, and benefits to management and the organization through effective compensation programs. A focus on training and skill development helped develop appropriate exchange rate hedging strategies and corporate governance improved compliance with laws, regulations, and policies. The benefits of effective hedging strategies include a reduction in cost and increase in profitability. The findings may help improve the soundness of professional hedging practices, which will increase the stability of the Tanzanian banking system.