Date of Conferral







Arcella Trimble


Inclusive education has become an international phenomenon; however, many developing countries struggle with its implementation. At last assessment of the Jamaican educational system in 2004, findings revealed exclusionary practices which are in contrast to international standards on education. Many children with special needs may not be receiving adequate support for education. Using Bandura's social learning theory as a foundation, this study examined whether there is a predictive relationship between grade level, type of school, location of school, access to support resources, perceived school climate, pedagogical beliefs, extent of inclusion training, attitudes to inclusion, and teachers' ratings of self-efficacy for inclusive practices. The study also examined whether there are differences in attitudes and concerns about inclusion by grade level taught (upper school versus lower school). Data were collected from 191 primary education teachers via questionnaires in public, private, rural, and urban schools in 3 parishes in Jamaica. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant findings for some of the variables. Constructivist teaching, extent of inclusion training, attitudes and concerns about inclusion, and traditional teaching were found to have a positive predictive relationship with self-efficacy for inclusive practices. Additionally, a perceived negative school climate was found to decrease self-efficacy for inclusive practices. Attitudes and concerns were examined by grade level; however, one way ANOVA revealed no significant findings. This research is significant as the implications for social change include using the results as a guide for system-wide improvement of the educational system in line with international standards on inclusive education.