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Self-efficacy and treatment adherence reduce substance dependence. Yoga has been suggested as an adjunct to substance dependence treatment to enhance outcomes. This study was designed to assess yoga as a moderator of substance abuse treatment effectiveness, as indicated by the Exercise Self-Efficacy survey and Treatment Effectiveness Assessment scores. This study was guided by self-efficacy theory and used a nonequivalent quasi-experimental design to evaluate self-efficacy changes and treatment effectiveness. A drug treatment program that did not incorporate yoga as an adjunct to treatment was compared to another treatment program that did. Convenience sampling strategy was utilized to recruit 100 voluntary yoga and nonyoga participants from each substance abuse treatment facility in urban south central and southwestern United States. Independent one-way t tests, linear regression, and a nonparametric test were performed to determine yoga adherence effect on substance abuse treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated no significant difference with respect to treatment effectiveness for either the yoga or nonyoga treatment groups. This study contributes to positive social change by showing that yoga exercise is not, contrary to earlier suggestions, effective at reducing substance addiction severity. While this study furthers the advance and understanding of the impact of yoga exercise, it demonstrated no increase in treatment effectiveness, suggesting that other areas of research should be pursued to identify adjuncts to improve substance abuse treatment.