Date of Conferral

2016

Degree

Ph.D.

School

Public Health

Advisor

Nicoletta Alexander

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading public health problem across the world. For various reasons, TB and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have increased. Clarification on TB/HIV co-infection and homelessness as risk factors for TB and MDR-TB is required to inform policy interventions to reduce TB-related morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. In this quantitative study, data from the Houston Health Department (N = 341) were analyzed to explore the relationship between TB and MDR-TB outcomes and TB/HIV co-infection and type of housing/homelessness. Foreign-born persons are disproportionately affected in the United States. The socio-ecological model provided a theoretical framework for the investigation. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationships between variables, controlling for age and gender. Results indicate that HIV infected persons were more likely than non-infected persons to contract TB, and homeless persons were more likely than non-homeless persons to contract TB/MDR-TB, suggesting that high TB/HIV co-infection rates increase prevalence of TB and MDR-TB while improvements in housing reduce prevalence of TB and MDR-TB. However, no significant associations between variables were found. The odds ratio, Exp(B) = 0.000, p â?¥ 0.90, 95% Cl [0.000, with no upper bound values] was observed for both independent variables. Regular screening for TB/HIV co-infection among persons with high TB and MDR-TB risk profiles is recommended. Further investigation is required. Inclusion of more covariates could further elucidate more evidence of an association between variables. Study findings may support interventions to reduce TB-related morbidity, leading to positive social change.

Included in

Epidemiology Commons

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