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A review of literature revealed a gap in research on the relationship between firefighter fatalities that take place during live fire training and adherence to the guidelines outlined in a national standard published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). In this mixed-methods study, quantitative data were collected from fire department training officers through an electronic survey. Qualitative data were collected through document review and interviews with leaders in fire service training and were coded to reveal emerging themes. Findings indicated a relationship between the disregard of NFPA 1403 and the fatalities, with the improper use of fuel found to be a factor in each fatality case. Findings also indicated that NFPA 1403 makes live fire training safer when applied properly, but, when not applied, can lead to fatal consequences.